Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The “inverted bowl-shaped” feature in this photo is an anticlinal structure, or simply an anticline. Primary migration refers to the initial expulsion of the hydrocarbons from the source rock, while secondary migration refers to the remainder of migration to the reservoir. The second major category of hydrocarbon reservoirs is structural traps. If one element is missing from the system, then a crude oil or natural gas reservoir cannot develop. In order for an unconformity trap to develop, the first layer deposited during the second depositional period must be an impermeable rock which can act as the cap rock for the reservoir. Sudjati Rachmat, DEA Historical. This is because it is missing a trapping mechanism at this location.). Major subdisciplines in petroleum geology Basin analysis. As discussed earlier, permeability is defined as the ease in which fluids flow through porous media. 2.3: Basic Petroleum Geology. Code Date Venue … Consequently, a rock formation with a higher porosity implies greater storage capacity than a rock formation with a lower porosity. Any deformation (folding, uplifting, tilting, faulting, etc.) The orange wavy line represents an unconformity surface where rocks are missing from the geological record. Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Presentation is oriented toward topics of interest to the petroleum … YOU WILL LEARN: The main elements … The two requirements for a commercial crude oil or natural gas reservoir are high porosity and high permeability. In this figure, the Source Rock is represented by the light grey layer. In the example shown in Figure 2.06, the reservoir rock is the same rock formation as the migration path. The fourth requirement for a hydrocarbon accumulation is the presence of a Reservoir Rock. This gap in the geological record is caused by a past erosional period. There are five geological requirements for the formation of a conventional hydrocarbon reservoir: These geological requirements are illustrated in Figure 2.06. As shown in this figure, all fluid migration is upward. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Dr.Ir. As mentioned earlier in this lesson, the size and weight of the sediments that form sedimentary rocks are deposited in water are dependent on the energy of the water suspending the particles. This pathway is the Migration Path in the hydrocarbon system. Geologists recognize these unconformity surfaces when they see rocks of one age sitting on top of rocks of a different age with no intermediary age rocks between them; while paleontologists recognize unconformities by rocks containing fossils from one age sitting directly on top of rocks containing fossils from a different, much older age. On the other hand, lighter, finer sediments can be suspended in low energy environments away from the shore in more calm waters and, consequently, are deposited further from the shoreline. After the second depositional period, the trap can be charged with crude oil to form the oil reservoir - the green area of the figure. From this discussion, we can see that sediments lower in the stratigraphic column must be older than those higher in the stratigraphic column. Basic Petroleum Geology for the Non-Geologist. This aquifer is shown as the blue layer in Figure 2.06. Figure 2.07b shows an unconformity trap. This is because the main driving mechanism in hydrocarbon migration is buoyancy, which occurs because the oil and gas are less dense (lighter) than the resident water. See search results for this author. The Basic Overview a. For a hydrocarbon reservoir to develop, all five elements of the reservoir system must be in place prior to the formation and migration of the hydrocarbons. The higher, uplifted portions of the tilted layers were then eroded over geological time. As the names imply, stratigraphic traps are related to the layering of the rock strata; while structural traps are related to the structural deformations of the rock formations. As discussed earlier, oil and natural gas exist in the pore-space between the grains of the sedimentary rocks. 3. We will highlight the following four basic forms of traps in petroleum geology further: • Anticline Trap • Fault Trap • Salt Dome Trap • Stratigraphic Trap • Traps with the Fracture Network. Petroleum Geology Training | This 5-Day course to summarize the fundamentals of Geology needed to be understood and integrated with Engineering data to manage petroleum reservoirs. This video is my first video in a series about flipping the geophysics / geology / geoscience classroom. Petroleum geology is the application of geology (the study of rocks) to the exploration for and production of oil and gas. We will discuss this process later in this lesson. @article{osti_6499973, title = {Basic petroleum geology}, author = {Link, P K}, abstractNote = {Fundamental concepts of the earth in terms of petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery are discussed, drawing on examples from throughout the world. A fault trap is created when a rock formation undergoes mechanical failure during an earthquake and the resulting fault causes a porous and permeable rock formation (reservoir rock) to be positioned adjacent to an impermeable rock formation. Are … With these changes, the types of sediments that are deposited change and the locations where they are deposited also change. A full scale basin analysis is usually carried out prior to defining leads and prospects for future... Exploration stage. In this figure, the crude oil reservoir is represented by the green area encased in the black, impermeable layer. A high permeability formation implies greater oil and gas production rates and more economically attractive production wells. As we can see from this figure, the hydrocarbons do not necessarily originate in the hydrocarbon reservoir itself but are generated away from the reservoir in rocks that are conducive to hydrocarbon generation. Stratigraphy is the study of the layers (or strata) within rock formations; while Structural Geology is the study of the deformation of rock under tectonic forces. Basics of Petroleum Geology Presented By: Shahnawaz Mustafa. Figure 2.08a shows an anticlinal structure, or anticline. Petroleum geology terminology is also defined. For all practical purposes it closely resembles the freshman level course that a non-science major at a university would take to satisfy the science requirement. This is the rock in which the original organic material is converted into hydrocarbons. Geology itself is firmly based on chemistry, physics, and biology, involving … These materials are deposited as sediments at the point in the depositional environment where the wave and tidal energy can no longer support them. Petroleum products have been used for at least 8000 years Herodotus 450 BC natural seeps Egyptians mummification/ Victorian … See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. • Lateral variation in magnetic susceptibility and remanence give rise to spatial variations in the magnetic field • It is … Schlumberger … Since large volumes of salt behave in a plastic manner over geologic time, the weight of the overburden creates great pressures within the salt causing it to flow through any local weak spots in the overburden. The Pennsylvania State University © 2020, Figure 2.04: Arch Rock Near State College, PA along Route 322, Figure 2.05: The Obelisk at the University Park Campus of Penn State, Figure 2.06: Typical Oil and Gas Reservoir Showing the Requirements for Conventional Crude Oil and Natural Gas Reservoirs, Source: Gregory King © Penn State University (, Figure 2.07: Stratigraphic Traps Resulting in Crude Oil and Natural Gas Accumulations, Figure 2.08: Structural Traps Resulting in Crude Oil and Natural Gas Accumulations, Introduction to Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Lesson 1: Introduction to Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Lesson 2: Origin and Occurrence of Hydrocarbons, 2.8: Undersaturated Black Oil (Low Shrinkage Oil) Reservoirs, 2.9: Saturated Black Oil (Low Shrinkage Oil) Reservoirs, 2.10: Undersaturated Volatile Oil (High Shrinkage Oil) Reservoirs, Lesson 3: Reservoir Engineering: Rock and Fluid Properties, Lesson 4: Reservoir Engineering for Oil Reservoirs, Lesson 5: Reservoir Engineering for Gas Reservoirs, Lesson 6: Production Engineering: Flow in Well Tubing, Lesson 7: Production Engineering: Well Intervention, Lesson 8: Drilling Engineering - Drilling Contracts, The Rig Crew, and Drilling Rigs, Lesson 9: Drilling Engineering: Drilling Rig Systems and the Drilling Process, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, iMPS in Renewable Energy and Sustainability Policy Program Office, BA in Energy and Sustainability Policy Program Office, 2217 Earth and Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802. Petroleum Exploration = focus on oil and gas, part of the hydrocarbon family of organic compounds b. Permeability is a property of the rock that is a measure of the ease in which fluids can flow through a porous medium (in our case, a rock formation). The Geology of Time. 2.1: Basic Earth Geology Print Since the occurrence of crude oil and natural gas are intrinsically associated with reservoir rocks, we must start our discussion of the origin and occurrence of natural hydrocarbons with petroleum geology. In the example shown in Figure 2.06, the migration path is a water-filled rock layer (aquifer) that is in communication with both the source rock the hydrocarbon bearing reservoir. Petroleum Geologists are the men and women who know how to read the story told by the very earth beneath our feet in order to find oil and … All of human history is the briefest moment at the end of four billion years of … Unfortunately, these oil-bearing rocks are a definite minority, and the determination of their whereabouts is the basic … It needs to be emphasized that although this figure consists of solid colored bands, these bands represent either porous or non-porous rocks. The layering you see is the local geologic stratigraphy; while the deformations you see form the local geologic structure of the rock formations. The study of the geological processes that create crude oil and natural gas reservoirs is referred to as Petroleum Geology. As the relative position of the sea level changes over the geologic time scale, the positions of the coarser and finer sediments change. Under the proper sequence of events, as the geographical locations of the sediments change over the geologic time scale, the changes in the size of the sediments can create pinchout, or stratigraphic trap. Since the hydrocarbons are generated away from the reservoir, there must be a pathway for the hydrocarbons to migrate from the source to the reservoir. One example of a stratigraphic column that you may be familiar with is The Obelisk on the University Park Campus of Penn State. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Basic Petroleum Geology 3rd Edition by Peter K. Link (Author) › Visit Amazon's Peter K. Link Page. (Note: a relative rise or fall may be due to either a true rise or fall of the sea level, or a subsidence or uplift of the land mass.) Author: Gregory King, Professor of Practice, Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University. (Note that the horizontal yellow layer representing good quality reservoir rock above the unconformity surface, does not contain crude oil or natural gas. At the point in the rivers, oceans, seas, or lakes where the energy in the water can no longer suspend or transport the rock material, it begins to settle in the water and is deposited onto the bottom of the water body. This is called the depositional process. Find all the books, read about the author, and more. Print. These road-cuts often show cross-sectional outcrops of layered, deformed rock formations along the road-side. He joined The University of Tulsa’s Geosciences Department in the late 1960s and is now Professor of Petroleum Geology … Structural traps, illustrated in Figure 2.08, are related to mechanical deformations and failures of the reservoir rock. A photograph of The Obelisk is shown in Figure 2.05. The … Contact Us, Privacy & Legal Statements | Copyright Information Petroleum Geology for Non-Geologists The Basics of Petroleum Geology Concepts and Processes for Technical & Non-Technical Professionals in the Oil & Gas Industry. As stated earlier, the most common reservoir rocks are sedimentary rocks; however, naturally fractured igneous and metamorphic rocks can also form hydrocarbon reservoirs. These form the lower tilted layers in Figure 2.07b. These rocks were then tilted due to local tectonic forces. Bakken Development: Pathway to Success, Roadmap to a New Tomorrow, No public clipboards found for this slide. What is Basic Petroleum Geology? This courseware module is part of Penn State's College of Earth and Mineral Sciences' OER Initiative. The coarser materials with the larger pore spaces between the sediment grains often make good quality rock, while the finer materials, particularly clays and silts, with smaller pore spaces make good impermeable seals (cap rocks). Basic Petroleum Geology and Log AnalysisHalliburton 10 Basic Petroleum Geology© 2001, HalliburtonThree Basic Rock TypesThe earth’s crust is composed of three basic rock types: … As we will discuss later, these source rocks are typically organic-rich shales, siltstones, or coals. Basic Petroleum Geology. In this photograph, the layering (stratigraphy) and deformation (structure) of the Keefer Formation (Silurian Age) are clearly evident. Fundamentals of Petroleum Geology Contact IHRDC Sales for Corporate Purchases Add to Cart Price: US$125.00 Description: The same basic fundamentals for hydrocarbon accumulation apply for small accumulations as they do for large accumulations, and those basic … In this discussion, we will also need to … In Figure 2.06, the solid green arrows represent the primary migration of the hydrocarbons, while the dashed green arrows represent the secondary migration of the hydrocarbons. Petroleum is not found in underground lakes or rivers, but it exists within the void space of certain rocks. In these figures, the yellow layers represent reservoir quality rock (Reservoir Rock); while the green areas represent an oil accumulation in the reservoir trap. PETROLEUM GEOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION Ronald F. Broadhead, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, a Division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology INTRODUCTION The … A trap or trapping mechanism is a change in the stratigraphy or a structural deformation that is capable of stopping the migration process and keeping the oil and gas in place over geologic time. These traps are common in areas where salt formations exist, such as in the Gulf of Mexico. Anticlines statistically form the most common crude oil and natural gas reservoirs. Petroleum Geology plays an important role in today's society. The John A. Dutton e-Education Institute is the learning design unit of the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at The Pennsylvania State University. The depositional history of an unconformity trap is slightly more complicated than that of a pinchout trap. A geological unconformity is a boundary between two rock sequences of different ages that are missing some transitory rock sequences of intermediate ages - in other words, some rock strata are missing from the local geological record. This, in turn, results in the possibility of greater quantities of oil and gas stored in the more porous rock. Petroleum Geology – application of geology (study of Earth, materials and processes) to the exploration and production of oil and natural gas i. Geology = interdisciplinary science at the crossroads of Chemistry, Physics and Biology ii. In the following discussions, all of the action concerning this figure is occurring in the pore-spaces of porous rock. Chapter 5 is intended to introduce the basic principle of petroleum extraction and recovery mechanisms. Basics of Petroleum Geology. Consequently, it forms a true stratigraphic column of the building stones of Pennsylvania. An anticlinal trap simply requires that the reservoir rock and cap rock be folded in a manner that can trap the lighter hydrocarbons. 2217 Earth and Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 From this discussion, we can also see that in their original, natural state, sedimentary rocks are horizontal. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. For example, a cubic foot (1 ft3) of rock with 15 percent porosity will contain 0.15 ft3 of pore space. In this discussion, we will also need to include brief discussions of related, specialized areas of geologic study including Stratigraphy and Structural Geology. A cap rock is simply an overlying rock layer that is impermeable to flow. Print this Course. The College of Earth and Mineral Sciences is committed to making its websites accessible to all users, and welcomes comments or suggestions on access improvements. As we have already discussed, hydrocarbon reservoirs are typically associated with sedimentary rock formations. BASIC PETROLEUM GEOLOGY SPONSORED BY DR. NORMAN J. HYNE, is a Certified Petroleum Geologist and President of NJH Energy. in sedimentary rock formations is caused by tectonic forces acting on the rock after deposition and solidification. Crude oil and natural gas traps can be categorized as Stratigraphic Traps or Structural Traps. You can change your ad preferences anytime. Heavier, coarser materials can only be suspended in high energy environments near the shore where wave and tidal action keep these materials mixed with the water. Thus, closure to the trap is formed by the cross-fault impermeable layer. Although a basin analysis is … We will discuss this in more detail when we discuss Reservoir Traps later in this lesson. Read more The Obelisk is a physical column constructed of quarried building materials from Pennsylvania with the older rocks placed at the base of the column and the younger rocks placed at the top of the column. Figure 2.08c shows traps along a salt dome. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. In this trap system, an early depositional period caused sedimentary rocks to be deposited horizontally. The petroleum system and modern exploration techniques including detailed study of petroleum source rocks, their deposition, thermal maturation and the chemical and physical characteristics of … As stated earlier, the anticline is statistically the most common reservoir trap. Examples of stratigraphic hydrocarbon traps are shown in Figure 2.07. Chapter 6 reviews the petroleum geology and status of petroleum industry in Yemen. Note, a stratigraphic column is a written, pictorial, or schematic record of the local rock strata showing the order of the rock deposition (older rocks at the bottom and younger rocks at the top), along with notes concerning the age of the rocks, occurrence of any fossils, any rocks which may be absent from the local geological record due to erosion, or any notes of use to a geologist. During the depositional process, the environment can change over the geologic time scale: mountain tops and hilltops erode, sea-levels rise or lower, etc. In just three days, you will understand the big picture of the petroleum industry, learn the fundamentals and language of petroleum … This course provides an overview of petroleum geology, from exploration to development. 1. In the example in Figure 2.06, the trap is an anticline like that shown in the photograph in Figure 2.04. It provides foundational information required to work in the current industry environment, with content that ranges from a historical overview to methods of exploration, new technologies, subsurface geology, petroleum generation, reservoirs, traps, seals, petroleum systems, unconventional reservoirs, shale plays, geophysics, geochemistry, … Petroleum geology – The study of the origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels Petrology – The branch of geology that studies the origin, composition, distribution … After subsidence, a second depositional period occurs where additional sedimentary rocks are again deposited horizontally over the erosional surface. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. • Biology • Biochemistry: transformation of plant and animal tissues into kerogen and through to … Geology of Petroleum E-Learning > General Petroleum Library > Basic Principles of Petroleum > Geology of Petroleum Module 1 discusses how the physical structure of the earth was formed, what the earths … Over geologic time, weathered and eroded rock materials are carried downstream from elevated regions to lower regions in rivers and streams to oceans, seas, or lakes. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. The reason for this is very simple. The study of the geological processes that create crude oil and natural gas reservoirs is referred to as Petroleum Geology. These histories illustrate the critical nature of the timing in the development of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Schlumberger Private Porosity space between rock grains in which oil accumulates Permeability passage-ways between pores through with fluids move Seal Rock rock through which oil and gas can not move effectively (such as mudstone or claystone) Migration Route avenues in the rock through which oil and gas … These salt intrusions can create hydrocarbon traps above and to the flanks of the intrusion as depicted in Figure 2.08c. Figure 2.04 shows a road-cut along Route 322 approximately 39 miles south of State College, PA. Figure 2.07 shows (a) a “pinch-out” trap and (b) an unconformity trap. In order to prevent this buoyant flow from occurring all of the way to the surface, a vertical flow barrier, or Cap Rock, is required along the migration path and at the reservoir itself. 10 March 2016 (19:56) rick . But a hydrocarbon reservoir is just one of the six elements that constitute a hydrocarbon system: Source Rock Thermal Maturation Reservoir Rock Migration Path Cap Rock Petroleum … Two commonalities that exist during the depositional process, even over the geologic time scale, are (1) the sediments and, consequently, the sedentary rocks that are lower in the stratigraphic column were deposited earlier than sediments higher in the stratigraphic column and (2) the layers of sediment are initially deposited horizontally. The porosity of a rock is defined as the fraction of the rock’s bulk (total) volume occupied by the pores. Figure 2.04 shows the Arch Rock anticline near State College, PA. A pinchout trap, Figure 2.07a, is formed due to the relative rise and fall of a water body in relation to the local land mass. Figure 2.08b shows a fault trap. The site editor may also be contacted with questions or comments about this Open Educational Resource. The book "Basic Petroleum Geology" is a must for petroleum geology beginners even for mature geologists as well. I. You are probably most familiar with the concepts of stratigraphy and structural geology from road-cuts seen along highways. Statistically, anticlines are the most common traps; however, they are not the only types of hydrocarbon traps. geology by measuring the strength or intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field. Hydrocarbons are extracted from reservoirs commonly made of sedimentary rocks. About the Course. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Primary objectives of the course are to broaden your geological vocabulary, explain selected geological principles and processes, and describe how certain petroleum … DESIGNED FOR: petroleum industry personnel in need of basic geological training, including engineering, geophysical, technical support, and administrative personnel. 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